I had a hard time finding a concentrated dose of useful terminal commands, so here you go:

uname -a: determines if you are 32 bit or 64 bit, plus a lot of useful system specs

ls: lists files in current directory

ls -L: lists files in current directory with read/write/execute permissions

chmod 500 -f myFile.txt: changes permissions to file myFile.txt (permissions go from 0 to 7, by row it’s user, other users, the world)

pressing “tab”: will auto-complete if you have timed enough characters- very useful for opening impossibly long-named downloaded software

cd /home/user: change directory to /home/user

cd /: changes to root directory

ifconfig: lists networky stuff

vi or vim: Text-based text editor (I recommend gedit unless you enjoy things like this though)

startx: start GUI (if booted without x server, or logging in remotely with something like ssh)

zypper/yum/apt-get/pacman (depending on distro) are commands you need to get to know, or you will being bugging people to help you install stuff every time you want new software, and it will make them hate you. Don’t be that guy.

can’t think of many more off the top of my head hope these help